Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by too much blood sugar, insulin deficiency, or misuse of insulin.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. It allows the glucose to enter the cells, this sugar is then used as energy. Without insulin, the glucose stays in the blood and is not used by the cells, causing an increase in blood sugar.

What are the different types of diabetes?

Diabetes type 2 is the most frequent form (90% of diabetics). It mainly affects mature adults. Most sufferers are overweight (BMI> 27) and have a family history. Two types of reasons for this diabetes: either insulin is not secreted in sufficient quantity or the insulin produced does not interact properly with cells to use circulating glucose.

Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes (10%), it occurs during childhood, rarely in older people. The patients’ pancreas no longer secretes insulin, so they need daily insulin injections.

Gestational diabetes is characterized by an increase in blood glucose to the end of the 2nd and 3rd quarter. It disappears in the weeks following delivery in 90% of cases but may leave a risk to women who developed it to suffer from type 2 diabetes in the following years.

How is diagnosed diabetes?

The diagnosis is based on the determination of fasting blood glucose.

If the patient has symptoms of intense thirst, frequent urination, slimming, drowsiness, a blood test should be performed to find the diagnosis of diabetes.

What are the treatments to follow?

Type 2 diabetes can be treated by dietary management, appropriate physical activity, by taking drugs: tablets with or without insulin injections.

Type 1 diabetes is treated by regular injection of insulin through a syringe, a pen or an insulin pump.

What are the potential complications?

Diabetes can cause damage to the retina of the eyes, including cataracts and glaucoma. Diabetes can also damage the kidneys and damage the arteries and cardiovascular complications are 2 to 3 times more common in diabetics. Prolonged hyperglycemia also impairs nerve transmission and poorly treated diabetes can lead to serious long-term complications. It is, therefore, necessary to consult your doctor regularly.

How to monitor your blood sugar well: self-monitoring

To live well with diabetes, it is essential to regularly monitor your blood sugar, that is to say, the blood sugar level. This self-control, performed by the diabetic himself is the only way to react quickly if necessary to avoid serious complications.

Each diabetic is different and will learn about the factors that increase or decrease his blood sugar and change his behavior accordingly. For example, the measurement of blood glucose shows the influence of a type of food on the level of sugar in the blood and eventually modify its diet accordingly. Similarly, the practice of a sport can change blood sugar.

The blood glucose should be checked several times a day. Most often, doctors advise checking in the morning before breakfast, the evening before dinner, 2 hours after the start of a meal.

The frequency and time of the self-checks will be determined by the patient with his doctor.

The measured blood glucose must imperatively be recorded in a self-monitoring book that will monitor the evolution of blood glucose based on meals, sports, lifestyle and some associated diseases…

Methods to control blood sugar levels have improved significantly in recent years. In all cases, the control requires taking a drop of blood, for example at the end of a finger.

The blood is put on a strip that gives the value of the blood glucose or through a blood glucose meter that indicates the rate on the screen. Some devices even collect blood and display blood glucose, requiring only one gesture.

Self-glycemic control

  1. before sampling
  • Turn on the meter
  • Insert a strip (and check its code)
  • Put a lancet in the lancing device
  • Wash hands with soap and warm water
  • Rinse and dry hands well
  • Never use alcohol before sampling
  1. at the time of collection
  • Massaging the fingers from the root to the end, the hand pointing downwards
  • Stitch one of the outer edges of the finger
  • Never sting your thumb or forefinger
  • Gently squeeze the fingertip to help the droplet form
  1. Determine blood sugar
  • Put the drop of blood on the strip
  • Wait for the recommended time for reading
  1. Precautions
  • Keep the strips out of the air and moisture
  • Always check their preemption date
  1. Keep a record of results tracking.

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